• Tuesday January 25,2022

Dalton's Atomic Theory

We explain to you what is Dalton's Atomic Theory, the atomic model he proposes, and its importance. In addition, who was John Dalton.

Dalton discovered that all matter is made up of a limited number of atoms.
  1. What is Dalton's atomic theory?

It is known as Dalton's Atomic Theory or Dalton's Atomic Model for the first model of scientific bases with respect to the fundamental structure of matter . It was postulated between 1803 and 1807 by the British naturalist, chemist and mathematician John Dalton (1766-1844), under the name of Athemic theory Athemic formulates .

This model proposed a scientifically verible explanation to most of the enigmas of the chemistry of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. He postulates that all the matter in the world is composed of atoms, that is to say that there is a finite number of fundamental particles .

In addition, he argues that simply from the combination of these particles, all complex structures of matter are possible. The direct ancestor was the Greeks of classical antiquity

The postulates of this model are:

  • Matter is made up of minimal, indestructible and indivisible particles called atoms.
  • The atoms of the same element are always identical to each other, with the same mass and the same properties. In contrast, atoms of different elements have different masses and properties.
  • Atoms do not divide, nor can they be created or destroyed during chemical reactions.
  • Atoms of different elements can come together to form compounds in different proportions and quantities.
  • When combined to form compounds, atoms are arranged according to simple relationships, describable by integers.

Despite the obvious importance of Dalton's atomic model in the emergence of modern chemistry, it should be noted that this theory has numerous shortcomings, as noted below.

For example, Dalton thought that gases were monoatomic substances, and that molecules were always composed from the smallest possible proportion. This led him to assume that water was composed of a hydrogen atom and an oxygen atom (HO) and miscalculate the atomic weight of many elements.

It can serve you: Atomic models

  1. Importance of Dalton's Atomic Theory

The model held that atoms combined to form different substances.

Although it was not the definitive in the history of chemistry, Dalton proposed the first, foundational model for chemistry . It allowed to solve questions on the subject that had no answer in their time.

For example, he explained the cause of the stoichiometric ratios fixed in the chemical reactions, that is, why the compounds were formed according to fixed amounts of each atom during a reaction. n.

The possibility of proving many of Dalton's postulates laid the foundations for future chemistry. Many of his mistakes remained undiscovered until the nineteenth century, when, for example, the first evidence appeared that the atoms, contrary to what Dalton assumed, were divisible. (See: Subathemic particles)

The great advantage of this model was that of scientifically explaining an immense set of complex facts and diverse compounds based on a fairly simple combinatorial theory.

  1. John Dalton Biography

John Dalton lived in England, between 1766 and 1844.

John Dalton was born in Cumberland, England, on September 6, 1766, the son of British cowboys. His facilities with mathematics were evident from an early age, but the religion of his parents prevented him from making his way to a university, so he should be educated in the New School. for religious dissidents that opened in Manchester.

In that institution he was Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy. Later he was elected member of the Philosophical and Literary Society of Manchester, where he presented his first works. Among other findings, he discovered color blindness (named in his honor), of which he suffered.

Among its other theoretical formulations of importance are the Gas Law, the Atomic Model and numerous scientific classifications of vegetables. He finally died on July 27, 1844 . One of the moon's creatures bears his name in eternal tribute.

Continue with: Rutherford Atomic Model


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