• Tuesday May 24,2022

Surrealism

We explain to you what surrealism is and when this movement arises. Characteristics of the movement. Representatives and authors.

Surrealism aspired to break the barriers of the conscious mind.
  1. What is surrealism?

Surrealism is known as an important artistic and aesthetic movement born in France in the 1920s, from the inheritance of the given movement and the influence of the French writer Andr Bret n, considered its founder and principal exponent. This movement enjoyed widespread popularity for decades and had literary, cinematographic and plastic arts aspects.

The surreal term comes from the French, and is attributed to the French writer Guillaume Apollinaire in 1917, in his dramatic play The Tiresias Tits . It literally means `` above '' ( south -) of realism (realism), which means that the surrealists were trying to create an art that went beyond the limiting perspectives of realism.

Surrealism was nourished by very diverse aesthetic and philosophical sources, ranging from the avant-garde poetry of Rimbaud, Lautrômont and Alfred Jarry, the painting of Bosco, the explorations given. These and, above all, the influence of the psychoanalytic theories of Sigmund Freud, whose perspective on the human mind and the dynamics of dreams served as the basis for the Surrealists .

Far from being a stable and uniform movement, surrealism established itself in the search and innovation in terms of artistic techniques, construction of objects and pictorial perspectives . In the literary field it was a huge revolution of language, forcing it to break with the rules of the understandable and embrace the strangeness, using methods such as automatic writing (free of Consciousness planning) and dreamlike poetic visions.

It was a school of great importance in Europe and the Americas, being adopted by various political and social trends as an artistic liberation mechanism, capable of giving voice to the silenced and saying everything which normally shut up. Surrealism has its peak before World War II, at which time most of its European farmers move to the United States and Latin America, where the surreal seed will pay off.

See also: Abstract art.

  1. Surrealism characteristics

Surrealism aspired to break the barriers of the conscious mind, approaching what Sigmund Freud called "the unconscious." For this purpose, he aspired to suspend the artist's control over the manufacture of his work, through automatic painting and writing techniques, or aiming at the reproduction of the dream environment, through relationships, proportions and inventions difficult to translate into ordinary language. In the Surrealist Manifesto of 1924 written by Breton, it is defined as:

“Pure psychic automatism, by means of which one tries to express, verbally, in writing or in any other way, the real functioning of thought. It is a dictation of thought, without the regulatory intervention of reason, oblivious to any aesthetic or moral concern. ”

Among other creations of the surrealists is the "exquisite corpse", which combines verses from various authors to compose a single poem, without having agreed on a unique sense.

  1. Representatives and authors of surrealism

Surrealism had among its ranks some of the most famous European artists of the first half of the twentieth century. However, it was so widespread and accepted in Europe and other latitudes that it is not possible to list all its authors and representatives. A summary of the most significant would include the names of:

In the literature:

  • André Breton (1896-1966), French writer and poet, founder of the movement.
  • Antonin Artaud (1896-1948), French poet, playwright and actor, creator of the "theater of cruelty".
  • Federico García Lorca (1898-1936), Spanish poet and playwright, killed and disappeared by the ranks of Franco.
  • Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918), French poet, novelist and essayist, famous for his calligrams.
  • Jacques Prévert (1900-1977), French poet and theatrical author, film scriptwriter and communist militant.
  • René Char (1907-1988), French poet, moved away from surrealism in 1938.
  • Octavio Paz (1914-1998), Mexican poet and essayist, Nobel Prize for literature in 1990.

In the plastic arts:

  • Salvador Dalí (1904-1989), Spanish painter, sculptor and writer, was one of the most famous surrealists in the world.
  • René Magritte (1898-1967), a Belgian painter who gave surrealism a conceptual charge, famous for his painting "this is not a pipe".
  • Joan Miró (1893-1983), Spanish painter, sculptor and engraver, his work investigated the universe of children and local Catalan traditions.
  • Marcel Duchamp (1887-1968), French painter and chess player, famous for his work Fuente (delivered to an exhibition under the pseudo R. MUTT) consisting of a urinal.
  • Frida Kahlo (1907-1954), a Mexican painter famous for her self-referential and feminist work, as well as for her love affair with Mexican muralist Diego de Rivera.

At the cinema:

  • Luis Bu uel (1900-1983), Spanish film director, known for his short film An Andalusian Dog (1929) and his numerous collaborations with Dal .
  • Jean Cocteau (1889-1963), French poet, novelist, playwright, painter and filmmaker.

Interesting Articles

Acceleration

Acceleration

We explain what is the acceleration and the formulas used to calculate it. In addition, its difference with speed and examples. The concept of acceleration comes from the studies of Isaac Newton. What is the acceleration? We call physical acceleration a vector magnitude (that is, endowed with direction) that the variation in the speed according to the time elapsed of an object which is in motion

Communication Barriers

Communication Barriers

We explain to you what are the communication barriers and the elements involved in your process. In addition, how to avoid these barriers. To communicate, the channel must be conducive to the transmission of a message. What are the barriers to communication? It is known as communication barriers to obstacles and difficulties that may arise during the communicative process and hinder the correct culmination of it or distort the original message

Illustration

Illustration

We explain to you what the Enlightenment is, the cultural and political movement of the 18th century, and what are its characteristics. Prominent figures. This time is also called the Age of Enlightenment. What is the illustration? The Enlightenment is a cultural and political movement known for bringing bright ideas to the dark society of the past

Spam

Spam

We explain what Spam is and for what purpose this type of malicious messages acts. In addition, the different ways to prevent and combat it. Usually, spam is a message with advertising content. What is Spam? The term `` Spam '' is an English word that refers to `` junk mail '' or `` junk Internet messaging , that is: unsolicited, unwanted and / or sender messages unknown , sent in large quantities and usually with advertising content

Cognitive

Cognitive

We explain what cognitive is and what cognitive psychology implies. In addition, its weak points, and differences with behaviorism. Cognitive psychology analyzes how knowledge is produced. What is cognitive? The word cognitive comes from the cognitive cognoscere, which means knowing . Thus, both cognitive psychology and cognitive processes refer to the ability to know through the senses and the reason that all individuals possess

Orbit

Orbit

We explain to you what an orbit is and what is its meaning in the area of ​​chemistry. What is an elliptical orbit and the solar system orbits. An orbit can have various shapes, either elliptical, circular or elongated. What is an orbit? In physics, orbit refers to the trajectory described by a body around another , around which it rotates by action of a central force, as is the gravitational force in the case of the stars light blue In less words, it is the trajectory that an object traces when moving around a center of gravity by which it is attracted, in principle without ever hitting it, bu