We explain to you what a sonnet is and a list of various European sonnetists. In addition, some examples of this poetic composition.
What is a sonnet?
It is known as a sonnetto, a very frequent poetic composition in the Europe of the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries, which consists of 14 major art verses (usually endemic), organized in four fixed stanzas: two quartets (4 verses each) and two thirds (three verses each).
The theme of the sonnets could be loving, medical or of any other nature, and usually distributed as follows: the first stanza posed the subject, the second developed, the first third reflects on what was said or raises a feeling about it, and the last one ended with a deep feeling, detached from the above. Thus, there was an introduction, development and conclusion in the poem.
The sonnet is originally from Sicily, Italy, from where it passed to the rest of the country and was cultivated by the poets of the Dolce stil nuovo, as Guido Guinizzelli (1240 -1276) and Guido Cavalcanti (1259-1300), who transmitted it to Dante Alighieri and especially to Petrarca (both of the fifteenth century), the great Latin poet who popularized the sonnet in the European world as the Poetic form ideal for love.
Other great European sonnetists were:
- In Spanish language : Garcilaso de la Vega, Juan Bosc n, the Spanish Golden Age poets such as Lope de Vega, Luis de G gogora, Francisco de Quevedo, Pedro Calder n de la Barca and Miguel de Cervantes. It was also cultivated in America by Sr. Juana In s de la Cruz and, very later, in the nineteenth century, Latin American modernists such as RubÃ © darn DarÃ o, the Spaniards Gustavo Adolfo B cquer and Manuel Machado, and later in the 20th century the members of the generation of 27: Federico Garc a Lorca, Jorge Guill n, Rafael Alberti.
- In the French language : The great French sonnetist was Cl ment Marot (1496-1544), who influenced the later Pierre de Ronsard y Ach Joachim du Bellay, since the period of sonnet splendor in France takes place in the 17th century. It disappeared in the following century, but in the 19th century it reappears with Charles Baudelaire, Paul Verlaine St phane Mallarm .
- In the English language : The sonnet is introduced in England in the 16th century, by the hand of Thomas Wyatt, translator of Petrarca and author of about 30 own sonnets. This genre will change over time until William Shakespeare reaches the one ssonto ingl s or soneto isabelino . It was also cultivated by John Milton, William Wordsworth and Thomas Hardy. In the United States, by Longfellow, GH Broker and EA Robinson, among others.
- The Portuguese language : Foundational poets such as Luís de Camões or Antero de Quental cultivated the sonnet, after Sá de Miranda introduced it after a trip to Italy in the 16th century.
- In German language : The sonnet arrives in German thanks to Ernst Schwabe and Georg Rudolf Wekherlin, using Alexandrians instead of endecasyllabs. Other cultists of the sonnet were Stefan Gerge, Hugo von Hofmannstahl and Rainer María Rilke.
It can serve you: Modernism.
- "Defining love", by Francisco de Quevedo
It's scorching ice, it's icy fire,
It's hurt, it hurts and doesn't feel
He is a dreamed good, a bad present,
It is a short rest very tired.
It is an oversight, which gives us care,
a coward, with a brave name,
a lonely walk among people,
A love only to be loved.
It is an imprisoned freedom,
that lasts until the last paroxysm,
disease that grows if it is cured.
This is the child Love, this is your abyss:
look what friendship you will have with anything,
He who in everything is contrary to himself.
- "Sad sighs, tired tears", by Luis de Góngora
Sad sighs, tired tears,
that throws the heart, the eyes rain,
the trunks bathe and the branches move
from these plants to consecrated Alcides;
more of the wind the conjured forces
the sighs unleash and remove,
and the trunks the tears drink,
bad they and worse they spilled.
Even in my tender face that tribute
That give my eyes, invisible hand
of shadow or air it leaves me clean,
because that fiercely human angel
Don't believe my pain, and that's my fruit
Cry without a reward and sigh in vain.
- "Sonnet to Laura", by Petrarca
Peace I can't find and can't make war,
and I burn and I am ice; and I fear and all postponement;
and I fly over the sky and lie on the ground;
and nothing squeeze and everyone hug.
Who has me in prison, neither opens nor closes,
neither does it hold me back or release my tie;
and love doesn't kill me nor does it undone me,
He neither loves me nor takes away my pregnancy.
I see without eyes and without screaming tongue;
and I ask for help and seem longing;
I love others and for myself I feel hated.
Crying scream and pain transit;
death and life give me equal attention;
for you I am, Madam, in this state.