• Monday January 25,2021

Proton

We explain what protons are, how they were discovered, their properties and characteristics. In addition, what are the nucleons.

The protons are in the nucleus of the atoms.
  1. What is a proton?

The proton is a type of subathemic particle, that is, one of the minimum particles that constitute the atom. It belongs to the family of fermions and is equipped with a positive electrical charge .

All matter is made of atoms, and these in turn of three types of particles, equipped with a different electric charge: electrons (negative charge), neutrons (neutral charge) and protons (positive charge).

For a long time it was thought that the proton was a fundamental type of particle, that is, that it could not be divided. However, today there is strong evidence to suggest that it is composed of quarks .

In any case, the proton is a stable subatomic particle, counterpart of the electron. Unlike the latter, which orbits around the nucleus of the atom, protons are contained in the atomic nucleus next to the neutrons, providing most of the atomic mass. Mica

See also: Atomic models

  1. Proton Discovery

Ernest Rutherford discovered the proton by experimenting with nitrogen.

The protons were discovered in 1918 by Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937), a British chemist and chemist. Amid experiments with nitrogen gas, Rutherford noted that his instruments detected the presence of hydrogen nuclei by firing alpha particles at the gas.

He concluded that these nuclei must be fundamental particles of matter, without knowing at that time that, precisely, the nucleus of the hydrogen atom contains a single particle: a proton. Thus, it was decided to provide hydrogen with the atomic number 1 .

However, previous scientific experiences are known that led to this discovery . For example, the German physicist Eugene Goldstein (1850-1930) in 1886 deduced that, being the electrically neutral atom.

In addition, the British JJ Thompson (1856-1940) had already discovered electrons and their negative charge, that is, it was necessary that there be some other type of particle with opposite charge in the atom. However, in his search for these particles, Goldstein found positive ions, through experiments with cathode rays.

See also: Rutherford atomic model

  1. Properties and characteristics of the proton

Each proton consists of two "top" quarks and one "bottom" quark.

Protons are stable composite particles, much more massive than an electron (1836 times) and endowed with a positive elementary charge of 1 (1.6 x 10 -19 C). They are composed of three elementary particles or quarks : two " up " (top) and one " down " (bottom). Their half-life is greater than 10 35 years, at which time they are susceptible to decomposition.

Protons have, like other subatomic particles, their own spin, that is, an intrinsic and invariable angular momentum, which in this case is ½ . This property is particularly useful for nuclear magnetic resonances and other modern technological applications.

  1. Nuclei

Since they are usually found in the atomic nucleus, protons and neutrons are known as "nucleons . " The electrons, on the other hand, orbit around them in a more or less dispersed way.

Nucleons are linked together by strong nuclear forces, which only in cases of particularly large atoms (such as Uranium) can yield to other forces, such as electromagnetic.

Nucleons constitute the highest percentage of the mass of any atom, and therefore determine the difference between a chemical element and the other: for example, the hydrogen atom has only one proton in its nucleus, while that of helium has two protons and one or two neutrons, depending on the specific isotope.

  1. Atomic number

In the periodic table you can see the atomic number of each element.

The atomic number (Z) indicates how many protons a type of atom has in its nucleus. Each chemical element has a different atomic number, although its chemical behavior is more well determined by the number of electrons that orbit around its number. Core.

Thus, for example, chlorine (Cl) has 17 protons in its nucleus, so that its atomic number is 17. This number never varies, nor even among the isotopes (versions) of the same atom, since they differ from each other only by the number of neutrons in their nucleus.

Follow with: Antimatter


Interesting Articles

Malnutrition

Malnutrition

We explain what malnutrition is and what are the consequences of child malnutrition. In addition, how to prevent malnutrition. Malnutrition can be caused by poor absorption of nutrients. What is malnutrition? Malnutrition refers to a poor diet, a poor diet in terms of calories, nutrients, proteins, iron and other substances necessary for the body

Market study

Market study

We explain to you what a market study is, what this review is for and what types there are. In addition, the steps used and examples. A market study determines whether or not an economic activity is lucrative. What is a market study? A market study is a review by companies of a niche market , to determine how viable it is and how convenient, therefore, it would be to invest their Money in developing it

Scientific knowledge

Scientific knowledge

We explain to you what scientific knowledge is and what it pursues. Characteristics of scientific knowledge and concrete examples. Scientific knowledge is based on research and evidence. What is scientific knowledge? The scientific knowledge is the set of verifiable knowledge given by certain thanks to the steps contemplated in the scientific method

Pesticides

Pesticides

We explain what pesticides are, what types of pesticides exist and why they are dangerous. In addition, organic pesticides. Pesticides protect agricultural products from unwanted species. What are pesticides? Pesticides, pesticides or biocides are a type of chemical compounds intended to repel, destroy, prevent or combat any undesirable species of plants or animals

Weight

Weight

We explain what the weight is and what is the difference between weight and mass. In addition, what are its different meanings and some examples. Weight is the force exerted by a body on the point on which it rests. What is the weight? The word peso comes from the Latin term pensum . First, this concept can be defined as the force with which the planet Earth attracts bodies

Temperate Forest

Temperate Forest

We explain what the temperate forest is, its flora, fauna, relief and other characteristics. In addition, where it is located. The temperate forest has five layers of vegetation from the ground to 60 feet tall. What is the temperate forest? Temperate forests are, as the name implies, the characteristic forests of the temperate climate regions of the two hemispheres of the planet