We explain to you what a poem is and what its differences are with poetry. In addition, the parts that compose it and some examples.
What is a poem?
A poem is a literary composition of the genre of the lyric, usually of short extension, consisting of the subjective description of an emotional, existential state or of some experience. For this, it uses a metaphorical language, abundant in tropes and linguistic turns and in imaginary licenses, more similar to the lyrical and to the song than to the narration.
Although there may also be prose, T they consist in verse, without implying adherence to rhyme and metric structures classical, which imposed a punctual amount of syllables per verse. At present, this literary genre is extremely free in terms of forms, so that a poem can be divided into stanzas, into songs, or simply flow as poetic prose or prose poetry. .
Poems books are called poems and may consist of anthologies, compilations of an author or a single extensive poem. Conventionally, poetry is classified into subgenres, whose four main ones are:
- Anthem s . Lyric songs that express exalted emotions, of celebration regarding a specific theme. For example: Hymns at night de Novalis.
- Ode s . Similar to the hymns, but dedicated to a specific subject, object or person, whose virtues or beauty are proclaimed in the poem. For example: Ode to a Greek urn by John Keats.
- Choose s . It is about poems of regret, in which something lost or wails lost: the illusion, love, life, etc. For example: Eleg a to the impossible memory of Jorge Luis Borges.
- S tira s . The synthras are burlesque compositions, which express indignation or contempt for certain subjects or people, sometimes for pedagogical purposes. For example: Praise of the foolishness of Erasmus of Rotterdam.
See also: Rhyming Asonant.
Poem and poetry
The terms poem and poetry are often used as synonyms, although they are not . On the one hand, a poem is a text, a writing, and therefore a finished work that we can read, which has an author and has a moment of publication. On the other hand, poetry is a literary genre, that is, one of the areas in which literature is subdivided, and therefore an idea, a concept. Poetry has no author, but is the conceptual category of all poems written and published in literature.
That said, it should be clarified that it is possible to find the term "poetry" used to refer to a poem, as synonyms, when preceded by an indeterminate article (a / a): "Julian wrote me a poetry" is equivalent to "Julian wrote me a poem".
Follow in: Poetry.
Parts of a poem
Poems can vary greatly in their structure and composition, but usually consist of a textual body made of verses . A verse is equivalent to a line of text, which is arbitrarily interrupted to emphasize a certain musicality or rhythm in reading, unlike prose, which is continuous.
The verses compose stanzas : sets of verses separated by blank spaces, equivalent to prose paragraphs. And finally, the total stanzas make up a song, which would become the "acts" or "chapters" of the poem.
Finally, if any, the songs integrate the poem in its entirety.
Some famous love poems are:
- “Eternal love” by Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer
The sun may cloud forever;
The sea may dry in an instant;
The earth's axis may break
Like a weak crystal.
Everything will happen! May death
Cover me with his funeral crepe;
But never in me can it go out
The flame of your love.
- "Kisses" (excerpt) by Gabriela Mistral
There are kisses that pronounce themselves
the sentence of condemnatory love,
there are kisses that look
There are kisses that occur with memory.
There are silent kisses, noble kisses
there are enigmatic, sincere kisses
there are kisses that are given, only souls
there are `` kisses '' forbidden, true.
- Ode to love (fragment) by Pablo Neruda
Love, let's do counts.
To my age
trick or deceive us.
I was a man of terms,
I don't regret it.
A deep minute,
a magnolia tree
for my teeth
and the moonlight
Some anonymous friendship poems are:
- Friendship (fragment)
And, that in the sweetness of friendship
there is room for laughter, and,
For shared pleasures.
Because in the dew of the little things,
the heart finds its morning,
And, take your freshness.
- Some friendships are eternal
Sometimes you find life in life
a special friendship:
that someone who entered into your life
Change it for complete.
That one someone who makes you laugh without sinking;
that one someone who makes you believe that the world
there are really things good.
That one someone who convinces you
that there is a door
so that you open it.
That is an eternal friendship.
Your friend, is the answer to your needs.
It is your field, which sows with love,
and `` harvestchais '' with gravity.
And it's your table,
and the fire of your home.
Some of the most famous exhibitors of the poetic genre were: Homer, Greek poet from the 8th century BC, author of well-known and valuable literary poems such as the Ileada and the Odyssey; Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (Spanish of the 16th century), also prose writer; Mario Benedetti, most current poet (twentieth century), creator of a wide collection of poems and also prose; and the English William Shakespeare and William Wordsworth, among others.