We explain to you what a molecule is and some examples of this set of atoms. In addition, the types that exist and their difference with the atom.
What is a molecule?
A `` marble '' molecule is understood as an organized and interrelated set of atoms of different nature, whether of the same element or of many different elements, through chemical bonds that result in a stable and usually electrically neutral set.
A molecule is also the smallest segment into which a chemical can be divided without denaturing it, that is, without losing its physical and physical properties. specific chemicals.
The structure of a marble and the degree of compression that exists between its constituent atoms will depend on whether the substance is in fact a solid (little separation between molecules), a liquid (medium, flexible separation) or a gas (much separation between molecules).
These types of atomic structures are extremely common in organic chemistry and in the constitution of atmospheric gases. However, not all of them are made up of molecules: most metals and minerals in the earth's crust join together with each other or form ions, that is, charged atomic bonds electrically.
The study of the molecules and their nomenclature does not only include the number of atoms that compose them and the properties they present, but also their understanding from a three-dimensional model of unions and structures. Two different molecules may have the same number of atoms of the same type, but being articulated differently, constitute an entirely different substance.
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Examples of molecules
Some examples of common molecules are:
- Oxygen: O2
- Hydrochloric acid: HCl
- Carbon Monoxide: CO
- Sulfuric Acid: H2SO4
- Sodium Chloride: NaCl
- Ethanol: C2H5OH
- Phosphoric Acid: H3PO4
- Glucose: C6H12O6
- Chloroform: CHCl3
- Sucrose: C12H22O11
- Paraaminobenzoic acid: C7H7NO2
- Acetone: C3H6O
- Cellulose: C6H10O5
- Trinitrotoluene: C7H5N3O6
- Silver Nitrate: AgNO3
- Urea: CO (NH2) 2
- Ammonia: NH3
Types of molecules
The molecules can be classified according to the complexity of their constitution, in this way:
- Iscrete molecules . They have a defined number of atoms, be they of different elements or of the same nature. They can be classified in turn according to the number of different atoms that make up their structure: monoatomic molecules (the same type of atom), diatomic molecules (two atomic types), tricotomic molecules (three atomic types), tetralogic molecules (four atomic types), etc.
- Macromolecules or polymers . This is the name of the large molecular chains, composed of simpler pieces and joined together, to achieve extensive sequences, which acquire new and specific properties. Plastics, for example, are a composite material made from organic macromolecules.
They can also be classified according to their tendency towards electromagnetic stability or instability, as follows:
- Polar molecules Those endowed with a certain electric charge, which manifests itself as there is an inequality in the attraction of electrons by the nuclei of the atoms involved. Thus, the electrons will tend to orbit more to the strongest nuclei and less to the weaker ones, causing the molecule to be electrically charged as a battery (dipole), with a positive and a negative pole.
- Apolar molecules . Those whose atoms have identical electronegativity, that is, do not show inequality with respect to the attraction of electrons, and retain a neutral charge in an ordinary situation.
Differences between atom and molecule
The molecules are formed by atoms and links between them, and therefore, they are particles much smaller and simpler than the molecules. In fact, most of the molecules can undergo procedures for rupture or lysis of their chemical bonds, reducing them or to molecular molecules. s simple, or pure chemical elements, that is, atoms.
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The water molecule is a very common case, composed of three atoms of two types: two hydrogen and one oxygen, covalently bonded according to the formula H2O. This molecule, extremely abundant on our planet, is also part of numerous organic substances and the bodies of animals and plants.
This molecule is characterized by having some electrical asymmetry, since oxygen attracts electrons with more force to the entire molecule, which translates into that the hydrogen has a slight positive charge, and the oxygen a slight negative charge.
The adhesion of water is due to this particular property, and the possibility that its molecules come together to form a liquid or also with other substances that can be dissolved in water.