Rherherford Atomic Model
We explain to you what Rutherford's atomic model and its main postulates are. In addition, how was Rutherford's experiment.
What is the athermic model of Rutherford?
The Rutherford atomic model, as the name implies, was the theory regarding the internal structure of the atom proposed in 1911 by the British chemist and physicist Ernest Rutherford, based on the results of his experimentation with gold sheets.
This model constituted a break with previous models such as Thompson's Atomic Model, and a step forward from the currently accepted model.
In his atomic model, Rutherford proposed that the atoms would have a central nucleus where the greatest percentage of their mass falls, endowed with a positive electrical charge, and that it was orbited by part Opposites of smaller load and smaller size.
According to their considerations, the atom operated as a solar electron system orbiting a heavier atomic nucleus, as do the planets around the Sun.
The atomic model of Rutherford can be summed up in the following three propositions:
- Most of the atomic mass is concentrated in the nucleus, larger and heavier than the rest of the particles, and equipped with a positive electrical charge.
- Around the nucleus and at great distances from it there are electrons, of negative electrical charge, orbiting it in circular paths.
- The sum of the positive and negative electrical charges of an atom should result in zero, that is, they should be equal, so that the atom is electrically neutral.
Rutherford not only proposed this structure, but also calculated its size and compared it with the size of the nucleus, reaching the conclusion that a a good part of the composition of the atom is empty space .
The atomic model of Rutherford was in force for a short time, being replaced by the atomic model proposed by Danish physicist Niels Bohr in 1913, in which the proposals were incorporated Africans developed by Albert Einstein in 1905.
More in: Atomic Models.
Rutherford's experimental method was based on several thin sheets of gold that would be bombarded in the laboratory with helium nuclei (alpha particles), thus measuring the angles of deflection of the particle beam when passing through the gold.
This behavior, which sometimes reached deviations of up to 90 °, did not match the atomic model proposed by Thompson, prevailing at the time, according to which the atoms were diffuse clouds, positively charged inside which had electromagnetically neutralized electrons. From these results, Rutherford was able to reformulate the idea of the atom that was used until the time.