We explain what is the logic and the types of logic that exist. In addition, a little history about this branch of science.
What is logical?
Logic is one of the branches of science that is dedicated to the study of the forms and modes by which reasoning is governed, focusing on the forms of valid inference. From this it follows that it does not have its own formal content, but that it gives us tools to differentiate a valid knowledge from another invalid one.
Logic was originally considered a branch of philosophy, but it varied over time to end up associated with mathematics (finding its culminating point in the logical positivism of the Circle of Vienna of the early twentieth century).
We can distinguish two types of logic:
- Pure logic: Analyze the valid and invalid forms of knowledge.
- Applied or material logic: In which specific cases of reasoning are analyzed and its premises are analyzed to reach a conclusion that is logically correct.
We can find great exponents in the analysis of logic, such as Arist teles in Antiquity and Immanuel Kant in the Modern Era. Although they have not dedicated themselves exclusively to logical analysis, but that this was a part of their vast theoretical production, they made great contributions to this science.
AristÃ ©teles was the first to raise the notion of logic to call the revision of the arguments as truth-stringers in all regards to science and in presenting the Il silogismo as a valid argument.
However, we cannot make the mistake of ignoring that, throughout history, Arist teles was not the only one, but that many other people who contributed their ideas and arguments to the earth traveled through the earth. Formation and growth of this science.
Among some examples of these figures, we can travel to the Middle Ages and highlight the work that carried out Averroes, a philosopher from the region of Cordoba, Spain a, that among the many studies that he carried out, he also stated that it is very important and fundamental to carry out a study regarding the logic of the old teachers so that, after that, they can begin to filosofar in the appropriate way.
Traveling a little in time, if we transport ourselves to the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, one of the outstanding figures that developed and practiced studies based on the theme of logic was Immanuel Kant. As it is well known, he is considered part of the most prominent and influential thinkers in the history of mankind and manages to highlight and establish, within the matter at hand, a new concept, that of transcendental logic.
This new term, introduced thanks to the studies of the philosopher properly cited, Immanuel Kant, looks for ways to define time and space as pure forms of sensibility. We have the ability to recognize and name objects through perception, sensitivity and intuition, but when none of these exist, they are called pure representations and these are the center of study of this philosopher.
The progress in the study of logic was given by the appearance of the so-called paradoxes, since these, being clear contradictions regarding common sense, prompted the resolution of certain questions. However, it not only gave rise to the development of logic, but also of philosophy and other disciplines.
See also: Formal Sciences.