We explain what the industry is, its history, importance, classification and other characteristics. In addition, examples of industries.
What is the industry?
Industry is the set of human activities capable of transforming raw material into processed or semi-finished products, through the realization of a job using tools or machinery, human resources, and energy consumption to.
Industry forms a fundamental link for contemporary society, at the same time as one of the main environmental and ecological risk factors . Its sustained impact since the time of the Industrial Revolution begins to be inculpable at the beginning of the 21st century.
Industries are considered, practically, all production work from raw material, including those associated with handicrafts. However, in the modern idea of industry, automation and mass production (the so-called Fordism) are often fundamental elements .
The ability to produce faster and faster is the spirit that guides the contemporary industry, which goes hand in hand with technology and engineering, even when it means replacing human workers with machines.
Industries in society usually occupy the Secondary Sector, which receives the raw material and transforms it into marketable products. However, they can also belong to the Primary Sector, as is the case of extractive industries.
It can serve you: Industrial security
The industry, in some way, has always been present in the desire of the human being to adapt the world to his needs, in order to live more, better and with less effort. However, between the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries there was the Industrial Revolution, that is, the highest level in history in the human capacities of transformation of the raw material.
This explosion of industry had begun to be built after the fall of medieval feudalism, when the population migrated from rural areas to cities, to integrate a new workforce that was beginning to become necessary: the working class. Also with the Industrial Revolution , capitalism developed as a mode of production.
During the nineteenth and mid-twentieth centuries, the industrial exploitation of the labor force was the greatest contribution to the GDP of European nations, also allowing the emergence of specialization and new technologies, hand in hand with new advances century scientists.
The new industrial society divided the countries of the world between industrialized or developed, those that made the leap towards productive and independent economies, and underdeveloped or non-industrialized countries, which are those dependent on foreign economies and dedicated to the sale of raw materials.
There are various types of industry, depending on the specific sector to which their production is dedicated. Some of the best known types are:
- Heavy industries . Using large amounts of raw material and energy, they are generally engaged in steel and other activities that generate semi-processed materials, inputs in turn for basic industries.
- Steel or metallurgical industries . They are dedicated to the transformation and alloy of metals, to achieve useful forms for other industries or for the direct consumer.
- Chemical industries . Dedicated to obtaining chemical elements and compounds, to be used by other industries or directly by consumers.
- Petrochemical industry As the name implies, it is dedicated to the chemical transformation of oil, that is, to its refinement to obtain various derivatives, such as gasoline, kerosene or plastic.
- Automotive industry Dedicated to the construction of cars.
- Food industry . That whose main market is that of foods of diverse nature, be they foods, drinks or ingredients for cooking.
- Textile industry Dedicated to the production of fabrics and fabrics for making clothes and other products.
- Pharmaceutical industry It is dedicated to the combination of organic and inorganic compounds to obtain various types of medicines and health supplies.
- Armament industry . That which is dedicated to the production of military or police armament.
- IT industry Dedicated to the production of computer parts, entire computers, accessories, peripherals, etc.
- Mechanical industry The one whose products are machines, spare parts for machines or tools for repair.
- Leather industry . It is dedicated to the work of animal skins to produce footwear, clothing and other products of animal origin.
- Energy industry Its main and only task is to obtain energy to feed the population and other industries, through mechanical, atomic or mechanical processes. Chemicals
Importance of the industry
The industry introduced great changes in the human life model, to the point that our vital paradigms changed forever. The consumer society in which we live today is mainly based on the exploitation of the Earth's natural resources.
In addition, our planet is transformed by the industrial sector, or to obtain energy, in an effort to meet a growing and more constant energy demand. The destiny of the industry, seen thus, is intimately linked to the ecological destiny of the planet and the destiny of our own species.
Some simple examples of industry are:
- Telephone industry Dedicated to the commercialization of telephone terminals and supplies necessary for its operation, it does not as well as the commercialization of the telephone service. Samsung, Nokia, are examples of companies in this area.
- Automotive industry Dedicated to the production of automobiles and in some cases motorcycles and similar vehicles of internal combustion engine. Honda, Ford, Mercedes Benz, are examples of companies in the field.
- Oil industry Dedicated to the extraction of oil and its commercialization, by the hand or not of the petrochemical industry to refine it. PDVSA, British Petrol, Shell, Texaco, are examples of companies in the field.
The manufacturing process is called manufacturing, that is, the economic production of consumer goods, encompassing a wide range of human activities, ranging from handicraft to mass industry, and transforming the raw material into processed or semi-finished products.
That is to say, that it is a term that is more or less synonymous with that of industry, in the cases in which these are industries of the secondary sector. Thus, we can talk about manufacturing industries, to differentiate them from industries dedicated to the extraction of raw materials, such as the mining industry.
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