• Saturday June 25,2022


We explain to you what existentialism is and what are its main characteristics. In addition, the origin of this famous philosophical current.

The greatest exponent of existentialism was Jean Paul Sartre.
  1. What is Existentialism?

Existentialism is one of the main philosophical currents that have marked the past century . With validity but with many detractors (mainly from the structuralist currents), existentialism has been one of the theories that came to rescue the role of the individual from oblivion in which he was in the tradition Philosophical of the time.

There is no absolute agreement on what existentialism is because, unlike other philosophical currents, it is not systematized or encapsulated in a specific period of time (since many claim which extends from the mid-nineteenth century to the present).

In fact, very few authors have recognized themselves as "existentialists" during their lifetime . It has usually been a later conceptualization of authors who have rethought the work of these authors in this philosophical key.

See also: Individualism.

  1. Existential characteristics

Existentialism cares about the place of man in the world.

Despite this, we can affirm that existentialism is a modern philosophical current (that is, resulting from Modernity) in which the subject is the center of philosophical reflection, understood as being free and self-conscious that determines itself.

It strictly rejects the conceptualizations that tend to determine the individual or any “essence” superior to this one, thus emphasizing the importance of the decision and the constructive process of man through his own actions. Topics such as anxiety about the world, loneliness, responsibility, etc. stand out.

Without a doubt, its greatest exponent is Jean Paul Sartre, although we also find authors such as Martin Heidegger, Albert Camus and further back in time, Søren Aabye Kierkegaard. Obviously, all these authors have had their own theoretical development, but they have in common their concern for the place of man in the modern world and its consequences.

  1. Origins of Existentialism

Some authors claim that existentialism has existed throughout history, at least sporadically and in isolation in some works by great authors of philosophy and even religion. However, it is in Modernity when existentialism takes shape .

The break with religious ideas in the West, coupled with the rise of the bourgeoisie and capitalism, brought man to the center of the scene: it is no longer God who determines individuals, but it is man who must determine himself . This was a crucial break in philosophy, starting with Descartes until today.

Now, it was during the 19th century that authors such as Friederich Nietzsche and Søren Kierkegaard took place. The latter was the great existentialist of the twentieth century, giving primary importance to the concept of self-relation. Kierkegaard understood that the "I" is in a continuous relationship with itself, it is the only thing that remains constant, highlighting the importance of knowing oneself, even before what surrounds us. Protestant in nature, his work is plagued by issues related to faith, and is known to be one of the main "religious existentialists."

We can also notice existentialist influences in the works of Fiódor Dostoyevsky or the questioned work of the German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer, but to a lesser extent than the two authors named above.

  1. Existentialism in the twentieth century

Martin Heidegger takes a much more pessimistic position on man.

Martin Heidegger develops his theory at the beginning of the twentieth century, warning about the dangers existing in modern society and about the need for an understanding of being different from the one we had so far. Starting from the concept of "dasein" or being-in-the-world, he takes a much more pessimistic position on man. This author understood man as "ecto", as thrown into the world, destined for a horrible pain in the world.

However, it is history that exerts an inevitable reversal of philosophy. Existentialism takes on major importance after the events that occurred in the world wars. After finishing the illuminist ideal of indefinite progress and a society without wars, man was almost reduced to a minimum.

From the use of this by the great dictatorial leaders, the great masses moved to the wars in pursuit of a nationalist sentiment, all this led to "radical evil", in terms of Hannah Arendt

Given this situation What was the role of the subject ?, What was his responsibility towards the world, against what happened ?, How does he face the «banality from evil », to that individual deprived of any feeling of responsibility, deprived of his ability to follow, who only follows orders?

  1. Sartre: the greatest exponent

Given this, Jean Paul Sartre appears, considered the greatest exponent of existentialism to date. To summarize in a few words Sartre's thinking is not simple, since he is strongly influenced by the particular historical situation and at the same time heir to a long historical tradition.

Like all modern philosophy, he rejects the existence of any god or supreme being . In addition to this, it denies a human nature of its own and even takes a more daring step for philosophy in general: not only is there no essence without existence, but existence precedes any essence. .

Sartre's doctrine opposes pessimism, understanding action as one of the solutions to existential anguish derived from loneliness against the world.

Interesting Articles



We explain to you what coexistence is, the question of whether the human being is selfish or solidary by nature and the patterns of coexistence. Coexistence is the relationship of people with the social groups that they integrate. What is living together? Coexistence is the physical and peaceful coexistence between individuals or groups that must share a space



We explain what mortality is, what is the mortality rate and what is birth. In addition, infant morbidity and mortality. It is known that human mortality is higher in men than in women. What is mortality? Human beings are mortal, that is, we are going to die, and therefore we have a particular relationship with mortality



We explain what indifference is and what are its possible causes. In addition, some examples of this feeling. Indifference can indicate an attitude of survival, such as a shield or armor. What is indifference? Indifference is that feeling of remaining immobile , both in motion and in feeling, in the face of any situation, idea or person



We explain to you what the geosphere is and how its structure is. In addition, how this set of layers is composed and its importance. The study of the geosphere is carried out through the experimental review of the soils. What s the ge sphere? In the natural sciences, the set of layers that make up the solid part of the Earth is called the `` sphere '' or `` geosphere

Philosophical Disciplines

Philosophical Disciplines

We explain to you what they are and what are the philosophical disciplines, what they are dealing with and the characteristics of each one. Philosophical disciplines offer different views on human existence. What are the philosophical disciplines? Philosophical disciplines, also called branches of philosophy, are the various aspects of study that comprise philosophy , that is, that are inserted into it as a much larger field

Effective Communication

Effective Communication

We explain to you what effective communication is and what its elements are. In addition, why it is so important and some examples. It is very important that the issuer knows clearly what he wants to transmit. What is effective communication? Effective communication is one in which the sender and the receiver encode a message in equivalent form