• Tuesday June 2,2020


We explain to you what a species is, what is its origin and its relationship with the genus. The types of species, the species in extinction and examples.

There are about 1.9 million species of living beings on our planet.
  1. What is a species?

In biology, the basic unit of classification of living beings, that is, the lower rung of any form of taxonomy, is understood as a species. Biological One is a set of organisms capable of reproducing and obtaining fertile offspring (not hybrid), and sharing their basic evolutionary defining traits.

About 1.9 million species of living beings are known on our planet, spread across the various realms of life. Many of them share evolutionary origins or are evolutionarily related from some common ancestor, although the category of species is difficult to apply to primitive organisms. of non-sexual reproduction, since they are not just reproductively homogeneous.

The biological classification gives each species its own name, written in Latin and consisting of two terms : first that of the genus and then that of the species, as en Homo sapiens, name of the human species. In this sense, when we use common terms to refer to certain forms of life, such as perro, gato, hongo or fern, we are really referring to a set of species that can be extremely diverse among themselves.

See also: Community in biology.

  1. Origin of the species

Darwin explained that the species of living things came from other previous species.

The way in which the species appear is known thanks to the works of Charles Darwin, mainly . His essay The Origin of Species published in 1859 laid the foundation for what we know today as the biological Evolution. In that text, Darwin explained that the species of living beings came from other previous species, that is, from their predecessors, whose fates had been determined by environmental pressure, that is, the competition to survive and reproduce against other contemporary species . This competition was called by Darwin "natural selection".

Thus, the species come from each other earlier, dating back in life to a common ancestor, and so on until the first forms of life. Darwin understood all this when in his travels he found how the species of the Galapagos Islands were similar, but at the same time different, from those on the mainland. This suggested that, geographically separated for a sufficient amount of time, the island species had adapted to their new environment, following an evolutionary path different from that of their mainland companions. And so, eventually, each variant ended up being a different species.

It can serve you: Evolution of Man

  1. Species and genus

In the scientific name of the species of living beings, we can see both the genus and the species, written in Latin: Homo sapiens, genus "Homo" (human) and species "sapiens" (wise). This is because the genus is a higher taxonomic category (more general, less specific) than the species, but inferior (less general) to the family.

The genus, thus, is a lineage of species, evolutionarily related and that somehow constitute variants, it could be said that different materializations, of a general concept that encompasses them. The genders, moreover, can be divided into subgenres or infragéneros, sort of genders-within-the-genre, or can be grouped into supergenders, an intermediate link between gender and family. There may be genera of a single species.

  1. Types of species

There are about 120, 000 different species of fungi in the world.

Species can be classified according to the realm of life to which the animals they describe belong. In that sense, we know (according to 2009 standards):

  • Animal species. Of which 1, 424, 153 different are registered.
  • Vegetable species. Of which 310, 129 different ones are registered.
  • Mushroom species Of which there are notes of about 120, 000 different.
  • Protist species. Of which there are notes of 55, 000 different.
  • Bacteria species Of those known about 10, 000 different.
  • Archaea species. Of those barely known about 500 different.
  • Virus species. Of which there are about 3, 200 different records.
  1. Examples of species

The gray wolf is the most common species of wildlife wolves in the world.

Some examples of species are:

  • Homo neanderthaliensis. Extinct species of the human genus, which lived with modern humanity about 230, 000 years ago.
  • Cannis Lupus Known as the gray wolf, it is the most common species of wildlife wolves in the world, to which the common dog could belong genetically, had it not been domesticated thousands of years ago. years.
  • Panthera tigris. It is one of the four species of tigers in the world, famous for its grated and orange leather. It is endemic to the Asian continent where it is a great jungle predator.
  • Helicobacter pylori. Species of gram negative bacteria that inhabit the human gastric system, and can develop infections in the gastric mucosa.
  • Rhodnius prolixus. Called chipo or pito, it is a common blood-borne insect in the Americas, capable of transmitting Chagas disease.
  • Populus alba. Known as the white flame or as a common flame, it is a leafy tree with green leaves with white backs, common in Europe and Asia, which grows up to 30 meters high.
  1. Native species

The Argentine ant has been artificially introduced to all other continents.

Native species are those that are native to the habitat in which they are found, that is, they do not come from migrations, nor have they been artificially introduced. However, unlike endemic species, the natives can be perfectly found in other environments, in which, logically, they will no longer be native, but will be exotic species.

For example: the marine iguana of the Galapagos Islands ( Amblyrhynchus cristatus ) is native and endemic to the islands, since they originate there, and nowhere else in the world is it found . On the other hand, the Argentine ant ( Linepithema humile ) is a species native to South America (Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia and southern Brazil), which has been artificially introduced to all other continents except the Ant rtida, and in them competes with the species of native ants of these continents.

Follow in: Native species

  1. Exotic species

A clear example of an exotic species is cows.

The exotic species, introduced species or foreign species are those that are not native to the place where they are found, that is, that have been artificially introduced or that are the result of migrations. They are considered the opposite of native species.

Exotic species can be beneficial or harmful to the habitat that receives them, thereby altering the local ecological balance, and may result in competition for native species. In case they are harmful, they are considered invasive species.

The human being is responsible for many species introductions over time, either consciously (ecological engineering) or involuntarily. A clear example of this is cows ( Bos taurus ), which are grazed around the world today but have a South Asian origin. Another is the various species of wheat ( Tricutum spp ), introduced by agriculture in all continents.

Follow in: Exotic Species

  1. Invasive species

Rabbits were introduced in Australia to practice the sport of hunting.

Invasive species are considered to be those exotic species that, once they reach a new habitat, proliferate and generate an alteration in the native ecosystem, displacing other species or impoverishing the ecological niche, since they come from an external biological system. These species can represent a real biological danger, not only at the biological level but also at an economic and agricultural level, or of public health, and therefore there are international regulations regarding the control of the transit of animals, plants, seeds, etc.

An example of invasive species is represented by common rabbits ( Oryctolagus cuniculus ) introduced in Australia in the 19th century to practice the sport of hunting, and that proliferated to such an extent that they became a pest in this country, putting check entire plantations, since they did not possess natural predators in that ecosystem.

Follow in: Invasive species

  1. Endangered species

The bengal tiger is a threatened species.

Extinction is the death of a species, that is, the disappearance of all the individuals that compose it. It is a process that has often occurred in the biological history of the planet, sometimes individually and sometimes massively, in what is known as mass extinctions, evidenced in the geological fossil record. Gico.

Extinctions can occur for various reasons : drastic changes in the ecosystem (climatic, chemical, geological, cataclysms, etc.), emergence of a new, more successful species (selection n natural) or, as in current times, by human activity: pollution, hunting or indiscriminate felling, etc.

Follow in: Endangered species

Interesting Articles

Natural disasters

Natural disasters

We explain what natural disasters are and how these natural phenomena are classified. Examples of natural disasters. Fires that devour acres of grasslands and even entire forests in its path. What are natural disasters? Natural disasters are understood as those violent or sudden changes in the dynamics of the environment , whose repercussions can cause material and life losses, and which are the product of environmental events in which the hand of the human being, such as earthquakes, floods, tsunamis, among others



We explain to you what alchemy is and the appearance of this proto-science in the artistic field. In addition, what are the philosopher's stones. Alchemy is a creation of the many that esotericism poses. What is alchemy? Alchemy is a creation of esotericism. This is linked to the transmutation of matter

Bering strait

Bering strait

We explain what the Bering Strait is, its width and depth. In addition, who owes its name and theories about this place. The Bering Strait has an average depth of 30 to 50 meters. What is the Bering Strait? It is known as `` Bering '' strait ( Bering S trait , in English) - a portion of the sea that extends between the eastern end of the Asian territory (Siberia, Russia) and the northwestern tip of the American (Alaska), serving as a communicating channel between the sea of ​​Chukotka (north) and the Bering Sea (south). It



We explain what nickel is, how it was discovered, how it is obtained, used and other properties. In addition, allergy to nickel. Nickel is a metallic element of atomic number 28. What is nickel? Nickel is a chemical chemical element , located in group 10 of the Periodic Table of the Elements, and represented by the symbol Ni



We explain to you what energy is and what are the different types of energy that we can find and some examples of them. A fundamental principle of energy is that it cannot be created or destroyed. What is energy? The term energy comes from the Greek word for activity, en gege , and is used in various areas of knowledge such as physics, chemistry or the economy, to refer to a force capable of generating an action or a job

Divergent thinking

Divergent thinking

We explain what divergent thinking is and what its objectives are. In addition, the origin of this method and how to promote it. Divergent thinking is considered the most traditional, structured and rational. What is divergent thinking? Divergent thinking (also known as lateral thinking) is that process or method of thinking that the brain uses to generate creative ideas when exploring all possible solutions for how to deal with each circumstance