We explain to you what the Julian calendar is and to whom its name is due. In addition, how it was composed and the causes of its replacement.
What is the Julian calendar?
The calendar model introduced by the Roman military and political leader Julio C sar in the year 46 BC (708 AUC, that is, ab is known as the calendar calendar introduced by the Roman military and political leader Urbe condita, from the foundation of Rome ). This calendar model entered into force from the Roman conquest of Egypt, and was the predominant in Europe and its colonies until the year 1582, when it was gradually replaced by the Gregorian calendar, more precisely in a 0.002%
The appearance of this unified calendar replaced the lunar calendars of many ancient cultures, such as traditional Etruscan and Latin calendars, unifying the Roman world and its colonies around the same model, heir to the Egyptian solar calendar, the first of which there is news, developed in remote antiquity to try to predict the floods of the Nile.
In fact, the Roman Empire was governed on the basis of a pagan calendar of 304 days distributed over 10 months, whose irregularities and lags were corrected according to economic and political needs Ethics (such as the time to pay workers or the delay in voting in the Republic), adding the month of Mercedonius biennially.
The Julian calendar introduced a regular year of 365.25 days over 12 months, with a leap day introduced between February 23 and 24 every 4 years. os. For this purpose, a year of 445 days, called the last year of the period, should have been counted during the year prior to its implantation. confusion The idea of numbering the days arose later, inheritance of the Visigoths, and was implemented by decision of Charlemagne.
The Julian calendar also took as the beginning of the year on January 1 instead of March 1, as was customary. Later, the months of quintilius y sextilius like July and August, in honor of the Roman emperors Julio C sar and C sar Augusto, respectively. Other emperors tried to rename months as they pleased, but failed in the attempt: Cal gula wanted to call September Germanicus, Ner n wanted to call Neronian abril April and Domitian wanted to call Domitianus October.
The `` mathematical '' considerations of the Julian calendar were taken even though it was already known, from the ancient Greek astronomers, that the tropic year was slightly shorter than 365, 25 days. Thus, this calendar model lost almost three days every four centuries . This motivated, during the Council of Trent (1545-1563), the need for a new model that corrected the accumulated offset from the Council of Nicea (325).
It can serve you: Gregorian Calendar.