We explain what bullying is and how it manifests itself in society. History of his study. What are the different types of bullying.
What is bullying?
Bullying or bullying refers to psychological, physical or verbal abuse, suffered by children and young people who are cruelly mistreated by another or other children, with the aim of intimidating, scare him, harm him, and let the stalker gain some advantage from bullying.
The victim of bullying, in most cases, is excluded from society due to the constant verbal, physical and mental abuse it receives. It can occur both in the school environment and through social networks, this is known as cyberbullying .
The type of bullying that dominates most acts of this kind today is the emotional type. Generally, it occurs in the classroom and playground of schools. The victims are boys and girls, usually entering full adolescence (the number of female victims of this type of harassment is barely greater).
The first to study the issue of bullying was the Norwegian psychologist Dan Olweus in 1973. From 1982 he turned his studies on a tragic event that happened the same year, in which three young people committed suicide because of the bullying they suffered in their respective schools. By this time, the issue was being treated in several places like England and the Nordic countries.
In the United Kingdom there are school tribunals for the treatment and resolution of these issues . In many countries in Europe there are several bullying prevention programs, as there are in the United States as of 1997, when bullying began to occur more frequently.
See also: Gender Violence.
Types of bullying
Social blocking: the stalker aims to block the victim in the social sphere. Look for the marginalization and isolation of society. Some examples of this behavior are the impediment of speech towards the victim, forbidding him to play in a group with the other children, and other behaviors that try to break the social relationships that the child could form. Making the victim cry through bullying situations also enters into this type of bullying. Stalkers try to present the victim to others as weak, helpless, stupid, without dignity, and so on. When the boy or the girl cries, what is known as the "scapegoat mechanism" is triggered.
Harassment: within this group are the lack of respect, contempt for the child, and the constant need to denigrate his person and his dignity. Some typical examples are mocking, belittling, ridiculing, being cruel, mocking imitations, and so on.
Manipulation of the environment: the stalker seeks to put others against the child. Distort your image to convince others to reject it. They make the child with an erroneous image of what it is, present it as something negative, inferior, and invent things that the victim has not done or said just to put them against him. There are many children who join this initiative, even involuntarily, assuming that the child deserves the harassment he is suffering.
Coercion: they seek that the harassed act against their will. This achieves full control of the victim by the stalker.
Social exclusion: it is the set of behaviors of the "no." The stalker is responsible for not denying the child so that all participation in society is totally excluded. It isolates it, prohibits its expression and participation in school games.