We explain to you what anarchism is and how this political movement originated. In addition, its characteristics and differences with Marxism.
What is anarchism?
When one speaks of anarchism, it refers to a political, philosophical and social movement that has as its main objective the abolition of the State and of all form of government, as well as all forms of authority, hierarchy social or control that the society le pretend to impose the individuals
The `` anarchism '' considers such forms of dominion as something artificial, harmful, and, moreover, unnecessary, since human beings have a natural tendency to a just and equitable order, which has been Perverted through social pacts.
In this way, the `` anarchism '' is interested above all in the matters of the individual and the society that surrounds it, with the aspiration to promote the rupture of order. established and allow a social exchange to arise, which will ultimately lead to a society without masters, without owners, without domains of any kind.
Traditionally, they have been grouped under the banner `` of '' anarchism `` diverse '' political and social movements, of different tendencies `` between yes '' and `` above all '' with procedures or methodology Different.
There are thus more radical, violent anarchisms, which aspire to an active role in the fall of the State; and more calm ortos, closer to passive resistance and pacifism. But there is no explicit and unique definition of what is an anarchist. Or what you have to do.
It can serve you: Class Struggle.
Origin of anarchism
The word `` anarchism '' as such comes from the Greek, and is composed of the words an - ( in ) and arkh ( power or command ), y surgi to nominate the power vacuum stages that arose after the French Revolution and the fall of the monarchy At the end of the 18th century. It was a derogatory term, to call the supporters of disorder and revolutionary terror (both Robespierre and the Enrag s were called anarchists).
However, the first `` contemporary anarchist movements '' were children of the labor movement of the beginning of the 19th century, who fight sought to improve working conditions of the proletariat, who were particularly fierce at the beginning of industrial capitalism.
Libertarian communism and the so-called utopian socialism, and if you want more radicals of trade unionism, played a fundamental role in the creation of anarchism, especially when a revolutionary but authoritarian left arose, which proposed a strong and unique State.
The anarchists, enemies of all kinds of authority and oppression, would look badly at the so-called dictatorship of the proletariat and emancipate themselves to create their own militancies and political and social aspects.
Characteristics of anarchism
Most anarchys are based on three major political and social pillars, which are:
- The libertarian thought . Anarchism is contrary to all forms of domination and authority, so it opposes the State, the authorities, the power in its many forms, preferring a society that regulates itself naturally and spontaneously.
- The abolition of inequities . Equality is another anarchist mission, so hierarchies, private property and other forms of possession are also unacceptable.
- Solidarity among human beings . Fraternity among human beings is another ideal aspect of anarchism, since the absence of laws, authorities and hierarchies would allow free interaction between people, which would lead them to solidarity, cooperation and mutualism.
Differences between Marxism and anarchism
The main difference between Marxism (also called scientific communism) and anarchist currents has to do with the fact that the first proposes a society governed by a single social class: the proletariat, in what was called the "dictatorship of the proletariat", a previous step to communism, that is, society without social classes, of absolute equality. Marxism is based on the idea of a strong state, of a single and central authority, that controls the economy and culture with an iron fist.
The anarchists, on the other hand, see their greatest enemy in the State and prefer not to agree with the idea of a dictatorship, whatever the prevailing social class, since their basic thinking is libertarian.
Thus, anarchism shares with Marxism its criticism of the system, its opposition to class society and the domination and exploitation of the working class, but not its proposal for an almighty state.
See more: Marxism.