We explain what South America is, the countries that make up this region and its capitals. In addition, its economy and the climates it presents.
What is South America?
When we talk about South America, South America, or South America, the region of this continent is to be referred to the line of the equator down, and that constitutes a single subcontinental block other than North America, Central America and the Caribbean Islands.
The South American Ocean is located between the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Caribbean Sea to the North and the Antarctic Ocean to the south. Its total area is 18.2 million square kilometers, equivalent to 49% of the entire Americas and 13% of the world's continental surface, also housing 6.5% of the population World total, in a set of twelve countries. The latter are organized into three major geographical-cultural regions: the South American Caribbean, the Southern Cone and the South American Andean region.
Culturally speaking, Suram rica is predominantly Hispanic, that is, the result of the colonization of the Spanish Empire of the American lands, with the exception of Brazil, former colony (and then kingdom) of Portugal, and of British Guyana, French Guyana and Suriname, former colonies of the British Empire and of the Kingdom of France. Some geographical perspectives also include islands of Trinidad and Tobago (former English colony) and Aruba, Curacao and Bonaire (former colonies of the Netherlands).
Before the Spanish conquest of the continent, Sudam rica was the scene of various pre-Columbian cultures, among which the Charr as, Tiahuanacos, Paracas, Nazcas, Mochicas, Tehuelches, Arahuacos and especially the Incas, who founded one of the great aboriginal American empires, settled in the Andean region until their traumatic encounter with the conquerors in the 16th century.
Subsequently, most of the continent under Spanish rule was divided into three large viceroyalties: the Viceroyalty of New Granada, the Viceroyalty of Peru and the subsequent Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata. During the 19th century, this territory was the scene of the bloody and long Wars of Independence, in which military heroes such as the Venezuelan Sim n Bol var or the Argentine Jos de San Mart played a key role. n, among many others. The South American countries achieved their independence from Spain at different dates of the 19th century, while Brazil did the same as Portugal in 1822.
Today, South America is a subcontinent characterized by its enormous cultural, geographic and ethnic diversity, as well as its unequal living standards and economic production.
See also: Latin America
South American countries and their capitals
South America is composed of twelve countries, which are:
Most populated cities in South America
The most populated cities in South America are:
- S ã o Paolo (Brazil) with 22, 672, 582 inhabitants in 2010.
- Buenos Aires (Argentina) with 10, 875, 587 inhabitants in 2007.
- Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) with 10, 838, 752 inhabitants in 2010.
- Lime (Peru) with 9, 283, 771 inhabitants in 2005.
- Bogotá (Colombia) with 10, 555, 058 inhabitants in 2008.
- Santiago (Chile) with 6, 428, 590 inhabitants in 2010.
- Belo Horizonte (Brazil) with 4, 035, 194 inhabitants in 2008.
- Caracas (Venezuela) with 3, 923, 959 inhabitants in 2011.
South American Economy
South America presents a gigantic economic diversity, which in turn generates extremely different models of life among themselves and very different societies economically and socially.
On the one hand there are agricultural colossi such as Argentina, Brazil and, to a lesser extent, Paraguay, whose main export products are soybeans, oranges, sugar cane, coffee, yerba mate and lemon. On the other, livestock in Uruguay and Argentina is also an activity of considerable international dimensions.
Mining is another great economic activity of the subcontinent. The oil sector is divided between Venezuela, Ecuador and Colombia, the first being a world-class oil producer with the largest oil reserves on the planet, while Bolivia subsists on the basis of the export of natural gas and, to a lesser extent, oil.
Finally, there is the Chilean case, the world's largest producer of copper, but also lithium and iodine, or Peru, the world's second largest producer of silver. Brazil and Venezuela are also large mining producers.
Tourism, gastronomy and floriculture are secondary industries spread across South America, as well as industrialized manufacturing activities in the Southern Cone and especially in Brazil, the world's sixth economy. The South American countries have partnered with each other through Mercosur, an initiative of united local markets, founded in 1991.
South America climates
Another very diverse aspect of the South American subcontinent is its climates, which are divided into three broad strips:
- Tropical or sub-equatorial. Traffic of Ecuador and northern Peru. This climate remains south along the Amazon Rainforest, becoming increasingly temperate. Some of the planet's largest regions are in this area, such as Choc (Colombia, Ecuador and Peru).
- Temperate or intertropical . Present in the central regions of the Southern Cone (Argentina, Chile, Uruguay) and southern Brazil, it has a temperate climate that becomes Mediterranean towards the center of Chile. As it descends to the Argentine or Chilean Patagonia, the weather becomes cold temperate, humid in the Andean mountain range and dry in the eastern zone.
- Mountain weather . Typical of the Andes mountain range, decreasing in temperature as the height increases, and presenting enormous thermal variations but drastic decrease in precipitation, as in the Andean Highlands (northern Argentina, Bolivia and northern Chile).