We explain what abortion is and the types of abortions that exist. In addition, the debates about this practice and the abortive methods.
What is Abortion?
The word abortion derives from the Latin abortus and its main meaning is to cut with the continuity of a particular activity . An example of this is the phrase "Abort operation", often used in military activities.
In its most common use, abortion refers to the forced termination of a pregnancy . This interruption can be caused by various causes.
See also: Birth.
Spontaneous abortion is when the pregnancy is interrupted before the 26 weeks of management . In this period of time, the fetus still did not develop most of its organs, so it is not in a position to remain alive outside the mother's womb.
This type of abortion, as the name implies, occurs when pregnancy is lost very suddenly . According to various sources, between 8% and 15% of pregnancies terminate pregnancy due to miscarriages, without taking into account a large number of people who have not participated in data collection.
Most of the interruptions in the gestation period occur in the first twelve weeks, spontaneously, whether known or unknown. In cases, no assistance or surgical action is needed to remove the fetus. Like spontaneous abortions, induced abortions also occur within this period of time (before 12 weeks)
This type of abortion can be caused by a chromosomal alteration caused by the poor disjunction of the gametes that participate in fertilization during the meiotic stage of the sex cells. This leads to an alteration in the chromosomal number, causing spontaneous abortions.
Recurrent miscarriage, known as AER, is the best known in clinical cases. Some epidemiological data indicate that after having undergone a spontaneous abortion (known with the letters AE), the risk of re-producing an abortion is almost 25%, taking into account that after four spontaneous abortions, this possibility increases 15%, that is, the new possibility of having spontaneous abortions is 40%.
Another probable cause of spontaneous abortion may be an alteration in an artery that supplies the uterus, the uterine artery. There are also a variety of anatomical factors that can be the cause of these abortions. Myomas, endometriosis, adenomyosis and adhesions within the uterus are some of the causes of spontaneous abortions.
Endometriosis is a condition of the uterus, in which the endometrium (the endometrial tissue is the one that covers all surfaces, in this case the uterus especially, and is the one that is expelled after menstruation or ruler), grows out of its place.
You have to take into account the family history, especially the mother's conditions and the follow-up of her pregnancy in order to determine the causes of an abortion. Drinking alcohol, smoking tobacco and using drugs greatly increases the chances of pregnancy being interrupted.
Induced abortion, according to the WHO definition, is the result of several tactics performed on pregnant women with the aim of ending their pregnancy period, that is, their pregnancy. These actions or tactics can be performed by a person outside the pregnant woman or by the mother herself.
The laws of induced abortion were decriminalized in many countries, even from the first laws that began to be formulated at the beginning of the previous century. The induced abortion is decriminalized in first, second and third world countries, that is, both developed and underdeveloped.
Legal abortion receives this name when it is performed under the decriminalized laws of the country in which it is applied . For example, in Spain it is considered legal when it is practiced with the consent of the pregnant woman and in a specialized medical center, as long as there is no risk to the health of the pregnant woman or her life, also for reasons of violations and malformations
Illegal or clandestine abortion is performed against the laws of the country in which it is practiced . In general, this type of abortion is performed in very poor hygienic conditions and with little chance of resorting to immediate professional medical assistance in case of an emergency.
Debate on abortion
The debate is generated from the question `` When does life begin? This, legally speaking, is determined by the Constitutions of the countries and hence the regulation of laws.
Those who are against this practice are, for the most part, people with strong religious convictions, claiming that life begins from conception, while doctors require a medical 22-week period to consider that he ceases to be a fetus and becomes a human being. Even so, others argue that the fetus can be considered a new human being when it is born.
At present there are many countries that are in the fight for legal abortion, arguing that its correct legalization will not increase the abortion rate, but that it can be regulated and save lives, avoiding the Unsafe abortions, since women who go to safe private clinics are those who belong to well-off social classes.
Methods of abortion
Some of the most used methods are the following:
- Suction: It is carried out by means of a special cannula that is inserted into the uterus, with previous application of anesthesia. It takes a short time and the doctor can do it manually.
- Scraping: It is done with a surgical instrument designed for the process. As the name implies, with this element the uterus is "scraped" and performed with total anesthesia.
- Medications: Depending on the number of weeks the pregnancy takes, the doctor will provide you with a dose of certain medications.
Contraceptive methods to prevent an abortion
It is important to practice safe sex to avoid reaching difficult and / or traumatic instances. However, it is also very important to remember that some of these methods do not protect the body against a possible transmission of a sexually transmitted disease, such as AIDS or hepatitis B, among others.
- Pill of the «Day after»
- Birth control pills
- Tubal ligation
- Monthly and quarterly injectables
- Condom or condom, either female or male
See: Contraceptive methods.